Ver Versão Completa : OODA loop (for observe, orient, decide, and act)

30/12/2010, 01:58
Encontrei isso no fórum do GameReplays.ogr - Uma pessoa apresentou isso em um tópico que se discutia aquele artigo Assessing CoH Skills que já foi postado aqui no fórum (não encontrei).O Artigo original: http://www.gamereplays.org/companyofheroes/portals.php?game=25&show=page&name=company-of-heroes-skills-levels-ranks
O tópico em que se discute o artigo: http://www.gamereplays.org/community/index.php?showtopic=541230&st=0
A Página da Wikipédia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop

OODA loop

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The OODA loop (for observe, orient, decide, and act) is a concept originally applied to the combat operations process (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combat_operations_process), often at the strategic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategic) level in both the military operations. It is now also often applied to understand commercial operations and learning processes. The concept was developed by military strategist (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_strategy) and USAF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Air_Force) Colonel John Boyd (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Boyd_%28military_strategist%29).

[hide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#)]

1 Overview (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#Overview)
2 Application of the OODA loop (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#Application_of_the_OODA_loop)
3 See also (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#See_also)
4 References (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#References)

4.1 Notes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#Notes)
4.2 Bibliography (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#Bibliography)

[edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=OODA_loop&action=edit&section=1)] Overview

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3a/OODA.Boyd.svg/500px-OODA.Boyd.svg.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OODA.Boyd.svg) http://bits.wikimedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/magnify-clip.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OODA.Boyd.svg)
Diagram[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_note-0) of a decision cycle known as the Boyd cycle, or the OODA loop.

The OODA loop has become an important concept in both business and military strategy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_strategy). According to Boyd, decision-making occurs in a recurring cycle of observe-orient-decide-act. An entity (whether an individual or an organization) that can process this cycle quickly, observing and reacting to unfolding events more rapidly than an opponent, can thereby "get inside" the opponent's decision cycle and gain the advantage. Frans Osinga argues that Boyd's own views on the OODA loop are much deeper, richer, and more comprehensive than the common interpretation of the 'rapid OODA loop' idea.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_note-1)
Boyd developed the concept to explain how to direct one's energies to defeat an adversary and survive. Boyd emphasized that "the loop" is actually a set of interacting loops that are to be kept in continuous operation during combat. He also indicated that the phase of the battle has an important bearing on the ideal allocation of one's energies.
Boyd’s diagram shows that all decisions are based on observations of the evolving situation tempered with implicit filtering of the problem being addressed. These observations are the raw information on which decisions and actions are based. The observed information must be processed to orient it for further making a decision. In notes from his talk “Organic Design for Command and Control”, Boyd said,
The second O, orientation – as the repository of our genetic heritage, cultural tradition, and previous experiences – is the most important part of the O-O-D-A loop since it shapes the way we observe, the way we decide, the way we act.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_note-boyd-2)
As stated by Boyd and shown in the “Orient” box, there is much filtering of the information through our culture, genetics, ability to analyze and synthesize, and previous experience. Since the OODA Loop was designed to describe a single decision maker, the situation is usually much worse than shown as most business and technical decisions have a team of people observing and orienting, each bringing their own cultural traditions, genetics, experience and other information. It is here that decisions often get stuck,[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_note-3) which does not lead to winning, since
In order to win, we should operate at a faster tempo or rhythm than our adversaries--or, better yet, get inside [the] adversary's Observation-Orientation-Decision-Action time cycle or loop. ... Such activity will make us appear ambiguous (unpredictable) thereby generate confusion and disorder among our adversaries--since our adversaries will be unable to generate mental images or pictures that agree with the menacing as well as faster transient rhythm or patterns they are competing against.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_note-boyd-2)
The OODA loop, which focuses on strategic military requirements, was adapted for business and public sector operational continuity planning. Compare it with the Plan Do Check Act (PDCA) cycle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_management#Quality_improvement) or Shewhart cycle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shewhart_cycle), which focuses on the operational or tactical level of projects. [5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_note-4)
As one of Boyd's colleagues, Harry Hillaker, put it in "John Boyd, USAF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Air_Force) Retired, Father of the F16 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-16_Fighting_Falcon)" [6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_note-5):
The key is to obscure your intentions and make them unpredictable to your opponent while you simultaneously clarify his intentions. That is, operate at a faster tempo to generate rapidly changing conditions that inhibit your opponent from adapting or reacting to those changes and that suppress or destroy his awareness. Thus, a hodgepodge of confusion and disorder occur to cause him to over- or under-react to conditions or activities that appear to be uncertain, ambiguous, or incomprehensible.
Writer Robert Greene (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Greene_%28author%29) wrote in an article called OODA and You [7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_note-6) that
the proper mindset is to let go a little, to allow some of the chaos to become part of his mental system, and to use it to his advantage by simply creating more chaos and confusion for the opponent. He funnels the inevitable chaos of the battlefield in the direction of the enemy.
[edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=OODA_loop&action=edit&section=2)] Application of the OODA loop

Consider a fighter (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fighter_aircraft) pilot being scrambled to shoot down an enemy aircraft.
Before the enemy airplane is even within visual contact range, the pilot will consider any available information about the likely identity of the enemy pilot: his nationality, level of training, and cultural traditions that may come into play.
When the enemy aircraft comes into radar contact, more direct information about the speed, size, and maneuverability, of the enemy plane becomes available; unfolding circumstances take priority over radio chatter. A first decision is made based on the available information so far: the pilot decides to "get into the sun" above his opponent, and acts by applying control inputs to climb. Back to observation: is the attacker reacting to the change of altitude? Then to orient: is the enemy reacting characteristically, or perhaps acting like a noncombatant? Is his plane exhibiting better-than-expected performance?
As the dogfight (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dogfight) begins, little time is devoted to orienting unless some new information pertaining to the actual identity or intent of the attacker comes into play. Information cascades in real time, and the pilot does not have time to process it consciously; the pilot reacts as he is trained to, and conscious thought is directed to supervising the flow of action and reaction, continuously repeating the OODA cycle. Simultaneously, the opponent is going through the same cycle.
How does one interfere with an opponent's OODA cycle? One of John Boyd's primary insights in fighter combat was that it is vital to change speed and direction faster than the opponent. This is not necessarily a function of the plane's ability to maneuver, rather the pilot must think and act faster than the opponent can think and act. Getting "inside" the cycle—short-circuiting the opponent's thinking processes—produces opportunities for the opponent to react inappropriately.
Another tactical-level example can be found on the basketball (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basketball) court, where a player takes possession of the ball and must get past an opponent who is taller or faster. A straight dribble (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dribbling) or pass is unlikely to succeed. Instead the player may engage in a rapid and elaborate series of body movements designed to befuddle the opponent and deny him the ability to take advantage of his superior size or speed. At a basic level of play, this may be merely a series of fakes, with the hope that the opponent will make a mistake or an opening will occur, but practice and mental focus may allow one to reduce the time scale, get inside the opponent's OODA loop and take control of the situation—to cause the opponent to move in a particular way, and generate an advantage rather than merely react to an accident.
The same cycle operates over a longer timescale in a competitive business landscape, and the same logic applies. Decision makers gather information (observe), form hypotheses about customer activity and the intentions of competitors (orient), make decisions, and act on them. The cycle is repeated continuously. The aggressive and conscious application of the process gives a business advantage over a competitor who is merely reacting to conditions as they occur, or has poor awareness of the situation.
The approach favors agility over raw power in dealing with human opponents in any endeavor. John Boyd put this ethos into practice with his work for the USAF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USAF). He was an advocate of maneuverable fighter aircraft, in contrast to the heavy, powerful jet fighters that were prevalent in the 1960s, such as the F-4 Phantom II (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-4_Phantom_II) and General Dynamics F-111 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Dynamics_F-111). Boyd inspired the Light Weight Fighter Project (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_Weight_Fighter) that produced the successful F-16 Fighting Falcon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-16_Fighting_Falcon) and F/A-18 Hornet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F/A-18_Hornet), which are still in use by the United States and several other military powers into the 21st century.
[edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=OODA_loop&action=edit&section=3)] See also

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/23/Seal_of_the_US_Air_Force.svg/28px-Seal_of_the_US_Air_Force.svg.png (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Seal_of_the_US_Air_Force.svg) United States Air Force portal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:United_States_Air_Force)

John Boyd (military strategist) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Boyd_%28military_strategist%29)
Control theory (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_theory)
Decision cycle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision_cycle)
Maneuver warfare (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maneuver_warfare)
Nursing process (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nursing_process)

Problem solving (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problem_solving)
Strategy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategy)
SWOT analysis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SWOT_analysis)
Systempunkt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systempunkt)

[edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=OODA_loop&action=edit&section=4)] References

[edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=OODA_loop&action=edit&section=5)] Notes

^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_ref-0) Boyd (1995) (http://www.chetrichards.com/modern_business_strategy/boyd/essence/eowl_frameset.htm)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_ref-1) Osinga, passim
^ a (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_ref-boyd_2-0) b (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_ref-boyd_2-1) Boyd (http://www.d-n-i.net/boyd/pdf/c&c.pdf)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_ref-3) Ullman (http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/CrossTalk/2007/04/0704Ullman.html)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_ref-4) Kotnour (http://www.alba.edu.gr/OKLC2002/Proceedings/track10.html)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_ref-5) Hillaker (http://www.codeonemagazine.com/archives/1997/articles/jul_97/july2a_97.html)
^ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop#cite_ref-6) Greene (http://www.powerseductionandwar.com/archives/ooda_and_you.phtml)

[edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=OODA_loop&action=edit&section=6)] Bibliography

Boyd, John, R., The Essence of Winning and Losing, 28 June 1995 (http://www.chetrichards.com/modern_business_strategy/boyd/essence/eowl_frameset.htm) a five slide set by Boyd.
Greene, Robert (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Greene_%28author%29), OODA and You (http://www.powerseductionandwar.com/archives/ooda_and_you.phtml)
Hillaker, Harry, Code one magazine, "John Boyd, (http://www.codeonemagazine.com/archives/1997/articles/jul_97/july2a_97.html) USAF (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Air_Force) Retired, Father of the F16 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-16_Fighting_Falcon)", July 1997,
Kotnour, Jim, "Leadership Mechanisms for Enabling Learning Within Project Teams" (http://www.alba.edu.gr/OKLC2002/Proceedings/track10.html) in Proceedings from the Third European Conference on Organizational Knowledge, Learning and Capabilities, Proceedings OKLC 2002
Linger, Henry, Constructing The Infrastructure For The Knowledge Economy: Methods and Tools, Theory and Practice, p. 449
Osinga, Frans, Science Strategy and War, The Strategic Theory of John Boyd, Abingdon, UK: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-37103-1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0415371031).
Richards, Chet, Certain to Win: the Strategy of John Boyd, Applied to Business (2004) ISBN 1-4134-5377-5 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/1413453775)
Ullman, David G., “OO-OO-OO!” The Sound of a Broken OODA Loop, Crosstalk, April 2007,
Ullman, David G., Making Robust Decisions: Decision Management For Technical, Business, and Service Teams (http://www.stsc.hill.af.mil/CrossTalk/2007/04/0704Ullman.html). Victoria: Trafford ISBN 1-4251-0956-X (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/142510956X)

30/12/2010, 15:01
Curuzes, todo esse texto pra dizer que vc deve usar seu conhecimento e experiência pra tentar prever o que seu adversário fará.

Parabéns pra mim, vou levar o troféu twitter de economia de caracteres.

30/12/2010, 15:48
Se você usar isso com n3li0 ele te chama de cheater.